Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin (real surname is Dzhugashvili , Georgian  December 1878 (according to the official version 9  December 1879 ), Gori , Tiflis Province , Russian Empire – March 5, 1953 , Near Dacha , Volynskoe , Kuntsy District , Moscow Region , RSFSR , USSR ) – Russianrevolutionary, soviet political, state, military and party leader. From January 21, 1924 to March 5, 1953 – the head of the Soviet state . Marshal of the Soviet Union (1943) . Generalissimo of the Soviet Union (1945).
From 1895, at the age of 15, he joined the underground revolutionary movement. He led the propaganda of Marxism among seminarians and workers. In 1900 for the first time he took part in the organization of strikes and protests of workers . In 1901 he joined the RSDLP , after the split joined the Bolsheviks . In 1904, of He Became one’s of the main Organizers of the great strike on Baku , the Outcome of the which WAS the Conclusion of the first collective Agreement in the Russian Empire for Between Strikers and Industrialists . In 1909–1917, he was repeatedly arrested and sent into exile.from where he also repeatedly escaped. In 1912, at the suggestion of Lenin, was included in the Central Committee of the RSDLP . Then Joseph Dzhugashvili finally takes the pseudonym “Stalin” .
After the February Revolution he returned to Petrograd . With Lenin View Blog’s return statement to Russia, Stalin supported a His slogan of turning the “ bourgeois-Democratic ” February revolution Into a proletarian Socialist revolution. He advocated an armed uprising in Kamenev and Zinoviev . With the Simultaneously October Revolution , the of Second the All-Russian Congress WAS elected a member of the the All-Russian Central of Executive Committee and SNK. Participated in the civil war . In 1922 onThe Plenum of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) was elected a member of the Organizing Bureau and the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) , as well as the Secretary General of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) (when he was appointed Chairman of the Commissars of the USSR ).
In 1924, the after the death of Lenin View Blog, Stalin, Defending the: idea of building Socialism in a single country , defeated Opponents . Various estimates to According, the period of with inner – party Struggle continued The until, 1928-1933, from the which Stalin Emerged Victorious . In 1928, the after the ambiguous results of the NEP , Stalin set for a course the accelerated industrialization , collectivization and the construction of a Planned economy , the which DURING the first a five-year Plans ensured a Certain of rate The growth of National income’s .A wave of deportations of peoples swept across the country., Religious persecution of , dispossession , crop failure The and death from starvation , mass Political references to camps and Executions .
From 1937 to 1938, the “ Great Terror ” (also referred to as “Yezhovshchina”) raged in the USSR . The this period During working, the Authorities store of the NKVD, USSR of the Convicted 1,344,923 and Executed 681.692 people . With the replacement Ended of NI Ezhov as head of the NKVD LP Beria (and the shooting of the first). Personally by Stalin and the Political Bureau of the CPSU (b) after the so-called. “ Stalin’s firing lists ” were condemned by 43,768people, overwhelmingly, members of administrative structures, including the NKVD and the Red Army (almost all were shot). During this period, 78% of the members of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) were killed. NKVD cleaning organs .
In 1939, the after the National Socialists CAME to power in Germany and conspired with Great Britain, France , Italy and Poland with the first, as with the a well as with the the signing is of the of Franco-German and Anglo’s-German the non-aggression TREATIES, Stalin Concluded a the non Treaty -aggression with Hitler ( “Molotov by Pact – Ribbentrop”) a and secret Additional protocol in IT about “Boundaries of the Spheres of Interest ”, on the basis of the which the , USSR occupied Territories the after theof Germany Into Invasion Poland and the Beginning of the of Second World WarWestern Ukraine and Western Belarus , the Baltic States , Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina , as well as after the presentation of the ultimatum and the subsequent Soviet attack on Finland and heavy winter battles, moved from the border Leningrad from 18 to 150 km .
The after the year A fall of France , June 22, 1941, the armed Forces of the Third Reich cross the border of the, USSR. The Great Patriotic War begins . After 3 years and 10 months, the Soviet Union under the leadership of Stalin as supreme commander , having suffered huge material and human , but comparable military ratio loss , it comes out of the winner. The Defeat of After of the Axis Countries of the Anti-Hitler Coalition, Soviet and American Troops Against rested OTHER each on the Elbe in Germany in the west, and 38th parallel of The in the Korea to the east. The country has become a socialist . To the of Due Fact That the United States has a unique atomic weapon , new Challenges arose for Stalin – in 1946, the Cold War Began .
In 1947, Stalin carried out monetary reform with a denomination and confiscation . Since consumer goods from 1941 to 1947, they did not have money. To the official According version, the Reform’s WAS Carried out with the AIM of Withdrawing counterfeit money and Preventing speculators the who profited from the war .
In 1949, the first successful atomic tests were carried out (the project was supervised by L. P. Beria ). Following the United States, the Soviet Union began to increase the number of atomic warheads , creating a guarantee of destructive retaliation in the event of an atomic war , the USSR became a superpower and one of the two poles of force .
Joseph Stalin died on March 5, 1953, according to a medical report, from a cerebral hemorrhage . After his death, the government formed three poles of power from L. P. Beria, G. M. Malenkov and N. S. Khrushchev . In June 1953, supporters of Khrushchev arrested Beria and subsequently shot him dead. September 7, 1953 at a plenum of the Central Committee, Khrushchev was elected first secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Malenkov was dismissed from party positions in 1957 .
According to most historians, Stalin’s rule was characterized by the existence of an autocratic regime of personal power, the domination of authoritarian-bureaucratic management methods, excessive strengthening of the repressive functions of the state, merging of party and state bodies, tight control of the state over all aspects of society , violation of fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens.